The new Monroe Doctrine and the intervention policy of US in the world
On December 2, 1823, then-President of the United States, James Monroe, presented to the US Congress the essence of what would be known as the Monroe Doctrine, a set of actions intended to prevent the European colonial presence in the Americas.
In 1904, under Theodore Roosevelt’s term, the United States declared itself willing to militarily occupy countries that were experiencing a crisis. Roosevelt expressed his conviction that a nation that can maintain order and fulfil its obligations need not fear the US interference.
The so-called Roosevelt Corollary worked as a kind of amendment to the Monroe Doctrine and defined its basic parameters, which justified approximately 50 direct US military interventions in Latin America.
The United States granted itself the right to be the “international police power” throughout all of the Western Hemisphere, assigning itself the “right” to forcefully depose governments that conflicted with its interests (US banks and corporations).
In the second half of the 20th century, the Monroe Doctrine was inseparably associated with the “National Securifty” regime throughout the hemisphere and also to the anti-communism, aimed at preserving Latin America as the sphere of influence of the United States and repressing revolutionary movements. It was a time marked by the imposition of façade governments, with civil and military dictatorships, which coined the expression “Banana Republics” throughout the region.
In the name of the Monroe Doctrine, hundreds of thousands of opponents of US domination and the military regimes were murdered, tortured and imprisoned. The historical records are shameful. In the name of its interests, the United States has turned a blind eye to bloody, highly corrupt and extremely violating regimes.
John Kerry, Secretary of State in the Obama administration, said in a speech to the Organization of American States (OAS) in 2013 that the era of the Monroe Doctrine was over. Kerry promised that Washington had abandoned intervention policies and that, from that moment on, Latin American countries would be treated as partners.
What we see today, however, is the resurgence of this doctrine through operations that seek to overthrow governments and establish new political realities, always in accordance with US interests. It is true that the situation faced by Venezuela is calamitous and that substantial repairs need to be made to the current Chavista regime, but is also true that the United States is working to overthrow the government of Nicolás Maduro by means of a coup.
It is in this sense that Washington feeds the actions of self-proclaimed interim president Juan Guaidó, a politician who has already shown incapable of meeting the conditions for leading a democratic transition in that country. In addition, the United States applies unilateral and rather questionable sanctions against Venezuela and other countries, such as Cuba, for example.
It is a fact that the sanctions imposed by the Trump administration only impact the poverty and hunger of the Venezuelans, not producing objective results against the regime's leaders. Aware of this, the president of the United States has reaffirmed that "all options are possible", in a clear threat of resuming military intervention policies, something that Latin American countries strongly reject.
In April, the United States was behind a military uprising aimed at ending the Maduro government, but the shot backfired. Guaidó lost credibility and the Venezuelan opposition cracked for good. The situation has left not only the United States, but 54 other countries – including Brazil – in a delicate situation. In upcoming January, Guaidó will cease to be the president of the National Assembly and, legally, will lose the recognition of all those who bet on a rapid fall of Maduro.
Through the revival of the Monroe Doctrine, the United States seeks to establish its hegemony in the world, not only in Venezuela or Cuba, but also in Iran, the Middle East, and Asia. At the heart of this obsession is the unhindered control of all the world's energy reserves (natural resources), including those in Latin America.
Marcelo Rech is a journalist and editor of InfoRel. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.